In addition to this development, language attitudes began to take on new life in the more qualitative research characteristic of the ethnography of communication within linguistic anthropology and adjacent fields. Also at this time, representing a temporary convergence of research in cultural anthropology and linguistics, a school of folk linguistics emerged as part of a revalorization of folk knowledge. This approach anticipated and converged with later developments in anthropology, such as ethnoscience and cognitive anthropology.
More recently, even as the language ideologies movement was taking shape, Niedzielski and Preston is an important volume on the general topic of folk linguistics, which converges with some similar themes found in the literature on language ideologies. A folk model of the mind. In Cultural models in language and thought.
Edited by Dorothy Holland and Naomi Quinn, — Hoenigswald, Henry M. A proposal for the study of folk linguistics. Edited by William Bright, 16— The first article, emerging from an important conference on sociolinguistics, that makes a programmatic call for research on folk linguistics.
Language Ideologies and Language Attitudes - Linguistics - Oxford Bibliographies
Kay, Paul. Linguistic competence and folk theories of language: Two English hedges. Edited by Dorothy Holland and Naomi Quinn, 67— Niedzielski, Nancy A. Folk linguistics. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs. Preston, Dennis R. The uses of folk linguistics. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 3.
Silverstein, Michael. The limits of awareness. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics An extended discussion of the need to understand the linguistic awareness of speakers as a significant factor in language change. In the later part of the 20th and the early 21st centuries, the study of language attitudes is further developed not as a final goal of research but as a necessary means of making sense of linguistic variation and change. Toward a similar end, Giles, et al. Taking the longer view provided by historical approaches, other scholars have found value in seeing language attitudes as shaped by historical debates and social processes.
Crawford, James, ed. Language loyalties: A source book on the official English controversy. Chicago: Univ. Overviews the explicit focus on language attitudes behind the official English movement and contains many documents and chapters devoted to historical efforts to suppress linguistic diversity within the United States. Eckert, Penelope.
Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology — The author also argues for the need of a stage in which sociolinguistic variability is also a means of constructing social meaning in context. Eckert, Penelope, and John R. Rickford, eds. Style and sociolinguistic variation. A collection of studies by various authors considering the role of genre, audience, and identity as factors in producing and accounting for linguistic variation.
Mattheier, and Peter Trudgill, — Language Awareness 4. An important study of language attitudes associated with various social dialects of Welsh English. Language in Society Accommodation theory: Communication, context, and consequence. In Contexts of accommodation: Developments in applied sociolinguistics. Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction. The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change 2. This article attempts to disentangle linguistic variation that can be attributed either to sex or social class and to understand the relative influence of each.
Mugglestone, Lynda. Talking proper: The rise of accent as a social symbol. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Second edition first published in Rickford, John R. The need for new approaches to social class analysis in sociolinguistics.
The author critiques conventional class analysis as limited and suggests the importance of using alternatives such as network analysis and ethnography. Representing the latter, Schieffelin and Ochs collects a variety of case studies, based on original research, that display cultural variation in the role that parents and other caretakers are to play in socializing their children to speak in culturally appropriate ways.
Definitions of speech communities typically appealed to a shared set of evaluative norms for speaking that functioned very much like language attitudes. Examining language attitudes in other national contexts, Macaulay examines speech communities in Scotland and the routine influence of English in Great Britain. The ethnographic approach has also been used in multicultural institutions, such as in Rampton in London schools, where teenagers use linguistic resources and language attitudes to create and celebrate a linguistic hybridity that creatively syncretizes their heritage languages into a playful youth dialect.
Other research, such as in Woolard and Gahng , has used ethnographic methods in combination with more-conventional quantitative methods to better contextualize research findings on changing language attitudes in Catalonia Spain. Gossen, Gary H.
- Tommaso M. Milani;
- Texts, Practices, Politics?
- Comment vaincre les objections avec brio ? (French Edition)!
- Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics (Advances in Sociolinguistics).
Chamula genres of verbal behavior. In Toward new perspectives in folklore.
Austin: Univ. An example of an approach from the ethnography of speaking that treats linguistic variation related to genre. Liang, Sihua. Language attitudes and identities in multilingual China: A linguistic ethnography. New York: Springer.
Language Ideologies and Media Discourse : Texts, Practices, Politics
Macaulay, Ronald K. Standards and variation in urban speech: Examples from Lowland Scots. Varieties of English around the World Philadelphia: John Benjamins. An examination of language attitudes pertaining to national standards and regional and class variation in the Scottish Lowlands. Morgan, Marcyliena. The African-American speech community: Reality and sociolinguistics. Edited by Marcyliena Morgan, — Los Angeles: Univ. An examination of language attitudes toward various languages and registers by African Americans, and the sociolinguists who have analyzed their speech practices.
Rampton, Ben. Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. Real Language. London: Longman. African American Vernacular English: Features, evolution, educational implications. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Language Ideologies and Media Discourse
Comprehensive look at distinctive linguistic and sociolinguistic features of African American Vernacular English AAVE , as well as the role of language contact. Language socialization. Excellent review article of the development of this linguistic anthropological specialization, devoted to the different cultural patterns of how people are socialized to use their languages.
Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. American English: Dialects and variation.
3 editions of this work
Woolard, Kathryn A. Changing language policies and attitudes in autonomous Catalonia. The authors compare matched-guise samples from and to gauge changes in language attitudes due to language policy changes. A sociocultural anthropologist, Sherry Ortner Ortner , detailed the changes that were occurring in anthropological theory as it moved from more of a preoccupation with symbolic anthropology to a greater concern for practice theories that viewed cultural activity as more situated in political-economic structures.
Sociological studies such as Giddens were developing practice theories that attempted to achieve an analytical balance in the representation of human agency within social systems. These early works included Gal , an examination of language shift in Oberwart—a Hungarian-speaking community in Austria in which gender and generational differences account for changing language attitudes in the context of socioeconomic change and rapid language shift.
Gumperz also studies the dynamic role of language attitudes as dialectically connected both to political economic forces at the macro level and to interactional strategies involving code switching and situational identities. Examples of early articles in the language ideologies school include Hill , which examines how Mexicano Nahuatl speakers in Mexico deploy an imposed linguistic purism to conceal their lack of a full command of the language due to their need as laborers to remove themselves from their indigenous villages to work in urban areas, and Woolard , which seeks explanations for why language attitudes in Barcelona consistently valorized Catalan even through decades of subordination during the Franco regime.
Irvine exposes the inadequacy of Saussurean views of language that emphasized its relationship to the ideational but ignored its connection to the material world, using numerous examples including the praise poems of Senegalese griots to demonstrate that linguistic acts can acquire material value. By the late s a sufficient number of publications had begun to focus on the political-economic contributions of linguistic forms and practices, such that Gal , a well-known overview, could depict a more robust treatment of the relationship of language to political-economic factors.
Gal, Susan. Language shift: Social determinants of language change in bilingual Austria. Language, Thought, and Culture. New York: Academic Press. Language and political economy.
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