Here is how Wittig defined that figure:. Lesbian is the only concept I know of which is beyond the categories of sex woman and man , because the designated subject lesbian is not a woman, either economically, or politically, or ideologically. Consciousness of oppression [Wittig wrote] is not only a reaction to fight against oppression.
It is also the whole conceptual reevaluation of the social world, its whole reorganization with new concepts, from the point of view of oppression The movement back and forth between the levels of reality the conceptual reality and the material reality of oppression, which are both social realities is accomplished through language. Almost the same words, and yet such a difference in meaning—not to say such a sexual difference.
But the leaving is not a choice, since one could not live there in the first place. At the same time, however, they enable a reconceptualization of the subject, of the relations of subjectivity to social reality, and a position of resistance and agency that is not outside but rather eccentric to the sociocultural apparati of the heterosexual institution. Most of us, at that time, shared a Marxist understanding of class and a materialist analysis of exploitation, although in Europe that understanding preceded feminism whereas in Anglophone America it often followed and resulted from the feminist analysis of gender.
I need not tell you about the theory of materialist feminism, since some of those who articulated it most clearly are present in this room. And that redefinition was also shared by others in North America, such as the black feminist group The Combahee River Collective, for whom gender oppression was indissociable from racist domination.
A curious paradox has occurred in the history of feminism over the past 30 years in relation to this idea. I will come back to it in a moment, but first allow me to continue with my account of the argument.
In order to imagine what female people would be like in such a classless i. It is the refusal of the economic, ideological, and political power of a man. The Missionaries of Charity Brothers was founded in , and a contemplative branch of the Sisters followed in Responding to requests by many priests, in Mother Teresa founded the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests  and with priest Joseph Langford the Missionaries of Charity Fathers in  to combine the vocational aims of the Missionaries of Charity with the resources of the priesthood.
By the Missionaries of Charity numbered about brothers and 5, sisters worldwide, operating missions, schools and shelters in countries. Teresa said, "By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world.
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As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus. At the height of the Siege of Beirut in , Teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front-line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas. When Eastern Europe experienced increased openness in the late s, Teresa expanded her efforts to Communist countries which had rejected the Missionaries of Charity. She began dozens of projects, undeterred by criticism of her stands against abortion and divorce: "No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work.
Teresa travelled to assist the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl and earthquake victims in Armenia. By , Teresa operated missions in over countries. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx area of New York City , and by the congregation operated 19 establishments throughout the country. Following a second attack in , she received an artificial pacemaker.
In , after a bout of pneumonia in Mexico, she had additional heart problems. Although Teresa offered to resign as head of the Missionaries of Charity, in a secret ballot the sisters of the congregation voted for her to stay and she agreed to continue.
In April she fell, breaking her collarbone , and four months later she had malaria and heart failure. Although Teresa had heart surgery , her health was clearly declining. According to Archbishop of Calcutta Henry Sebastian D'Souza , he ordered a priest to perform an exorcism with her permission when she was first hospitalised with cardiac problems because he thought she might be under attack by the devil.
On 13 March Teresa resigned as head of the Missionaries of Charity, and she died on 5 September, five days after the death of another of the world's most famous women, Lady Diana Spencer. The Missionaries of Charity were aided by co-workers numbering over one million by the s.
Teresa lay in repose in an open casket in St Thomas, Calcutta , for a week before her funeral. She received a state funeral from the Indian government in gratitude for her service to the poor of all religions in the country. Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif called her "a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity. Teresa was first recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier, receiving the Padma Shri in and the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in President Pratibha Patil said, "Clad in a white sari with a blue border, she and the sisters of Missionaries of Charity became a symbol of hope to many — the aged, the destitute, the unemployed, the diseased, the terminally ill, and those abandoned by their families.
Indian views of Teresa are not uniformly favourable. Aroup Chatterjee , a physician born and raised in Calcutta who was an activist in the city's slums for years around before moving to the UK, said that he "never even saw any nuns in those slums".
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Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya , mayor of Kolkata from to , said that "she had no significant impact on the poor of this city", glorified illness instead of treating it and misrepresented the city: "No doubt there was poverty in Calcutta, but it was never a city of lepers and beggars, as Mother Teresa presented it. Secretary Giriraj Kishore said that "her first duty was to the Church and social service was incidental", accusing her of favouring Christians and conducting "secret baptisms" of the dying. Praising her "selfless caring", energy and bravery, the author of the tribute criticised Teresa's public campaign against abortion and her claim to be non-political.
In February Mohan Bhagwat , leader of the Hindu right-wing organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh , said that Teresa's objective was "to convert the person, who was being served, into a Christian". Vaidhya supported Bhagwat's assessment, and the organisation accused the media of "distorting facts about Bhagwat's remarks". According to its citation, "The Board of Trustees recognises her merciful cognisance of the abject poor of a foreign land, in whose service she has led a new congregation". Teresa's fame may be partially attributed to Malcolm Muggeridge 's documentary, Something Beautiful for God , and his book of the same name.
Muggeridge was undergoing a spiritual journey of his own at the time. In England, the footage was found to be extremely well-lit and Muggeridge called it a miracle of "divine light" from Teresa. Around this time, the Catholic world began to honour Teresa publicly. She was honoured by governments and civilian organisations, and appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia in "for service to the community of Australia and humanity at large".
Teresa was criticised for implicitly supporting the Duvaliers and corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell ; she wrote to the judge of Keating's trial, requesting clemency. Universities in India and the West granted her honorary degrees.
- Joan of Arc;
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- Rain (Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker).
In , Teresa received the Nobel Peace Prize "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace". When Teresa received the prize she was asked, "What can we do to promote world peace?
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When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society—that poverty is so hurtable [ sic ] and so much, and I find that very difficult.
Because if a mother can kill her own child—what is left for me to kill you and you kill me—there is nothing between. Barbara Smoker of the secular humanist magazine The Freethinker criticised Teresa after the Peace Prize award, saying that her promotion of Catholic moral teachings on abortion and contraception diverted funds from effective methods to solve India's problems.
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During her lifetime, Teresa was among the top 10 women in the annual Gallup's most admired man and woman poll 18 times, finishing first several times in the s and s. One of Teresa's most outspoken critics was English journalist, literary critic and antitheist Christopher Hitchens , host of the documentary Hell's Angel and author of the essay The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice who wrote in a article: "This returns us to the medieval corruption of the church, which sold indulgences to the rich while preaching hellfire and continence to the poor.
She was a friend of poverty. She said that suffering was a gift from God. She spent her life opposing the only known cure for poverty, which is the empowerment of women and the emancipation of them from a livestock version of compulsory reproduction. She said, 'I'm not a social worker. I don't do it for this reason. I do it for Christ. I do it for the church.
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Abortion-rights groups have also criticised Teresa's stance against abortion and contraception. Analysing her deeds and achievements, Pope John Paul II said: "Where did Mother Teresa find the strength and perseverance to place herself completely at the service of others? Where is my faith?
Even deep down If there be God—please forgive me. When I try to raise my thoughts to Heaven, there is such convicting emptiness that those very thoughts return like sharp knives and hurt my very soul. Kolodiejchuk the official responsible for gathering evidence for her canonisation thought that her unhappiness might be misinterpreted by some, but her faith that God was working through her was undiminished; although she pined for lost closeness to God, she did not question his existence.
After ten years of doubt, Teresa described a brief period of renewed faith. After Pope Pius XII 's death in , she was praying for him at a requiem mass when she was relieved of "the long darkness: that strange suffering. Teresa wrote many letters to her confessors and superiors over a year period, most notably to Calcutta Archbishop Ferdinand Perier and Jesuit priest Celeste van Exem her spiritual advisor since the formation of the Missionaries of Charity.
I want you to pray for me—that I let Him have [a] free hand.
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