Virginia Andreescu Haret , Bloque de viviendas en Bucarest , Lilla Hansen : Heftyeterrassen , Oslo , Fue una de las pocas mujeres profesoras de la Bauhaus. Todas las obras estaban firmadas como Estudio Aalto.
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Ragna Grubb fue una de las primeras arquitectas danesas en fundar su propio estudio de arquitectura. Como arquitecta, fue coautora, junto a su marido Szymon Syrkus , de numerosos edificios de vivienda social en Varsovia.
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Eileen Gray , Casa E , Charlotte Perriand , Silla, Ragna Grubb , Edificio de las mujeres y hotel Cecil, Copenhagen, Jean Bodman Fletcher y Norman C. Fletcher, Casa Fletcher, Sin embargo la sociedad presionaba para que volvieran al hogar. Estaba vedado de facto el acceso a las profesiones prestigiosas como la arquitectura donde ellas participan en calidad de excepciones.
Importantes arquitectas trabajaron junto a hombres, en muchas ocasiones sus maridos. Lo mismo ocurre con Kaija Siren , socia de Heikki Siren. Es decir que en el proyecto del conjunto, convergen tres excepcionales arquitectas del momento. Otros casos notables son:. Heikki y Kaija Siren , Capilla de Otaniemi, Inger y Johannes Exner, Iglesia de Saedden, Ingeborg Kuhler , Technoseum, Es la primera mujer india en montar su propia empresa. Patricia y John Patkau , Biblioteca y archivos nacionales de Quebec , Odile Decq , Restaurant en la Opera de Paris, De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.
Tipi Lakota. Mujeres masai reparando la vivienda. Mary Townley : Townley House, Ramsgate, Edith Hughes : Glasgow Mercat Cross, Lotte Beese , Pendrecht, Consultado el 27 de febrero de American Antiquity Society for American Archaeology 78 4 : Native American architecture.
Oxford University Press. Consultado el 21 de octubre de Handbook of the North American Indians.
La soledad de ser Pierre Bonnard
Smithsonian Institution. Anthony University of Illinois Press, ed. Aubry-Vitet Consultado el 6 de agosto de Consultado el 16 de abril de The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture. Consultado el septiembre de London: Faber and Faber. Bullen noviembre de The Burlington Magazine : Architect of the Capitol. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Consultado el 20 de enero de Consultado el 14 de octubre de Consultado el 18 de octubre de The Danville Morning News. Consultado el 5 de octubre de Women in Architecture. Archivado desde el original el 6 de julio de Consultado el 11 de febrero de Consultado el 25 de octubre de Josephine Wright Chapman and Tuckerman Hall.
Consultado el 17 de abril de Consultado el 23 de octubre de The Wilson Quarterly. Consultado el 18 de abril de Lexikon: Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf von A bis Z. Preservation Issues. Consultado el 1 de octubre de Consultado el 30 de octubre de The First American Women Architects. Urbana: University of Illinois. University of Illinois Archives. Consultado el California State Capitol Museum. Archivado desde el original el 23 de junio de International Archive of Women in Architecture. Consultado el 22 de abril de Power House Museum. Bernstein 1 de enero de The New York Times. Masqueray Was Chief of Design of St.
Orlando Sentinel. Archivado desde el original el 12 de noviembre de Consultado el 23 de abril de Hamburgisches Architekturarchiv der Hamburgischen Architektenkammer. Archivado desde el original el 14 de septiembre de Archivado desde el original el 20 de julio de Mariehamns stad.
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Store Norske Leksikon. Nothing Against Serbia. Royal Australian Institute of Architects, ed. Women Architects in Australia University of New South Wales, ed.
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Melbourne University Press, ed. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de ISBN Where are the women architects? Princenton Press. Dictionary of Scottish Architects. This consciousness renders possible not only the process of representing objects but allows the representation of men as beings.
At this point, a foray into structuralism becomes necessary, and more specifically, into the structuralist totality as a nonpositive value: Structuralism is a combination or permutation scheme, equipped with an auto-closure, no matter how ineffably fluid and dynamic its processes are. It can be seen therefore that knowledge is a generative process and there is no clear delineation between what man perceives from the outside and what he creates inside: knowledge of the world is his continuous creation, a product of interpretations of the subject, in its own respect in a process of construction, in a continuous exchange of information with objects and subjects.
The human being is in a state of permanent representation; in a continuous creation process, in which each subject shapes himself. In the observing subject, an internalization of the object observed is generated — an expression of the participation and of the active relationship of the subject with the creation of the object itself. This creation is always itself generative and interpretive. From the moment in which the subject recognizes the observed object, he is externalized and perceived as a property of the object and external to the subject.
This is the essence of perception — that it does not make explicit, but generates the world — where a man's life can be understood as an iterative process of knowledge, and where the "object" is not recognized as an object in itself, but as set of relationships which the brain receives and processes instantly: form is generated when you recognize the relationships in it. However, the perceptual system is not based solely on sensory experience: man builds his perceptual experiences memory , which once organized and processed condition his way of representing the world, in addition to having the ability to anticipate imagination , through which he develops knowledge that allows him not only to discover, but to create new forms.
So the process occurs not only between external environment stimulus and information processing, but also taking into account the prior knowledge, memories and expectations of each individual, combining to create complex and different perceptions for all. All these capabilities are formed during the interactions between living things and the environment, in the flow of reciprocal exchanges, creating a reality that is merely the set of perspectives and experiences that each individual acquires through life, in a continuous renewal of perception, which is, on the one hand, access to representation and, on the other, a layout of the world, at the intersection of the experiences and interpretations of "self" with those of the "other".
Perception, however, is not sufficient to understand the world, the meaning of which is woven in the intersubjective creation of reality, contributing to the development of thinking and being. Communication is the condition for achieving intersubjective reality, whose interpersonal character allows for the dialectical exchange of information with other individuals who share a common reality, each contributing their own point of view, rendering possible the recognition of the same experiences by different individuals.
The dialogical experience — an essentially human reality, as a manifestation of subjectivity itself -- is what allows man to access the representation of the thoughts and experiences of others. Through it, man is not only capable of receiving information from his environment and interacting with it, but can also exchange it with other individuals, transferring to them his knowledge about his relationship with the medium, in accordance with a mutually generative relationship, to establish a common ground for the sharing of human experiences.
In fact, the term communication in its etymology means "to divide", "share", and therefore it is not a process of transmitting information, but a process of interaction between subjects, elements, which is necessary for the constitution of society as a reality, as a sharing of newly generated knowledge. So language represents one element in the creation of human reality — an element that allows one to confront and interpret said reality, establishing knowledge creation processes, characterized by individual thought processes, but socially mediated; subject to codes that enable communication and understanding, activated through dialogue, to establish connections between the thoughts and experiences of different individuals.
Reality, then, is represented by the words we use to name it — the "reality of meaning" — in which dialogical experience is determined by the environment and communication processes are the product of the evolution and history of mankind.
In communication, meaning is constructed, modified and transformed, according to the interpretive capacity of each individual and the ease with which the human being appropriates reality. It does not consist of the mere accumulation of facts, but of the creation of information on the reality that everyone observes, perceives and interprets, generating new data and information. It is communication, an active process that establishes the relationship between words and the world; through speech can one not only describe the world and reality, but also act on it, and above all, in a certain way, act on other individuals.
However, it is not just thought that discloses itself or makes known its named reality, but it is the distancing from oneself — without isolating or renouncing oneself — in the search for otherness and for an opening to it, contemporary to knowledge — which is the act that occurs with communication—, developing its potential to be another. Like interpretation, communication is an endless process, where meaning remains open to infinite interpretations and is generated as it progresses, in the continuous exchange of information, which allows form to manifest itself.
However, man lives in a world, in a representation of his own history, a joining of past and future, provided by a certain culture and language that determine his knowledge and interpretation of reality, which cannot be unique to each man, but shared by different individuals, for the construction of knowledge and, as Maldonado says, one must "avoid [ So in the construction of human culture, achievements are passed from generation to generation through educational processes learning , understood not as imitation, nor as a cumulative acquisition of prior knowledge, but as knowledge in construction, a development of the information exchange between people, assuming and generating, at the same time, its own historical legacy.
Evolution occurs when individuals integrate what they have learned and introduce it, transformed, into their own representations, thanks to the ability to transmit their own experiences to the next generation. The history of humanity, in fact, is constructed through the interactions of human experiences and transmission of prior information, to which the cognitive process makes contributions to improve that which exists and define that which is new, where "existing" and "new" can coexist and mutually balance one another, as parts of the same process of understanding and knowledge construction.
To consider knowledge a process means to consider it dynamically and, consequentially, to transform the conception of learning, to understand it as a process as well, beyond the acquisition of knowledge or adaptation to a pre-established reality whose objectives are also in constant change. In this perspective, the human being is in a state of continual education, building a socialization of knowledge, sharing skills that enhance learning and expand the powers of thought, establishing, in the interaction between individuals, bases for the development of culture, as they are able to transform information into knowledge.
The information is also of a multiple nature and constantly changing, in time and space, and it generates the new through the existing 17 , and its processing is the more profitable the more it is able to produce transformations that generate new knowledge, thereby weaving the fabric of culture. In this sense, the human being is a process of creation in his way — a process in which the subject is the activator of his own knowledge, building a socially objectified reality parallel to his own subjective reality.
It is society which must create the necessary conditions for individuals to build their subjective realities, fostering situations where they can share and create an objective reality — a world of meaning that each individual can attribute to that reality.
Mediaciones: de la representación de la realidad a la generación del mundo
In the succession of changes that take place throughout the process, elements are melted down and individual terms — social, technical, environmental — merge, interact in an integrating view, highlighting the interactions and interdependencies in the creation of forms. The representation of reality is therefore a very complex phenomenon, which involves not only individual skills but the interactions between men and between man and the medium, as well as specific techniques acquired through learning in its active form.
In it, the generation of the world can be inferred from the interaction between the processes of perception, communication and knowledge of society, that is, from the shape of the world, in its cultural and social construction, where form is not determined by man, nor by the medium only, but arises and is created in the flow of their interactions; it the dynamic relationship between the two. It is assumed, therefore, that processes of representation occur through successive approximations, from the perceptive faculty, in the translation of information from the outside to thought, that transforms information in a process of understanding, involving communication, sharing knowledge with other subjects, in the dialogical experience that returns thinking outside, and finally reaching the creation of culture, which requires classification and organization of information, allowing the development of collective subjectivation in order to make sense of reality.
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All this constitutes the human capability to generate representations of realities composed of actions and experiences in relation to the multiple interactions that can occur in them, re building a unity in which it is not possible to isolate each interpretation, but where processes of living are cognitive processes. They are not representations of the world but of its continuous creation, which contains within in that which is unfolding, where the subject is the builder of his own knowledge, from dynamic relationships and their social conditions, in his historical and cultural progression.
These concepts can be applied to all products of human activity, through experimentation and reflection on the possibility of an intelligence and of a connective creativity, designed to amend the fundamentals of world creation.
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