This was consistent with the ancient Egyptian tradition of associating royalty with divinity in order to reinforce the position of kings and queens. Still, unreliable flooding of the Nile resulted in failing crops, leading to inflation and hunger. Both sides asked for Egyptian support, and after some stalling Cleopatra sent four Roman legions stationed in Egypt by Caesar to support the triumvirate. In 42 B. According to the story recorded by Plutarch and later dramatized famously by William Shakespeare , Cleopatra sailed to Tarsus in an elaborate ship, dressed in the robes of Isis.
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Antony, who associated himself with the Greek deity Dionysus, was seduced by her charms. Cleopatra returned to Egypt, followed shortly thereafter by Antony, who left behind his third wife, Fulvia, and their children in Rome. He spent the winter of B. Antony again met with Cleopatra to obtain funds for his long-delayed military campaign against the kingdom of Parthia.
They again became lovers, and Cleopatra gave birth to another son, Ptolemy Philadelphos, in 36 B. In a public celebration in 34 B. In late 32 B. On September 2, 31 B. He fell on his sword, and died just as news arrived that the rumor had been false. On August 12, 30 B. The means of her death is uncertain, but Plutarch and other writers advanced the theory that she used a poisonous snake known as the asp, a symbol of divine royalty, to commit suicide at age But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Despite his brilliant military prowess, his political skills and his In 32 B. Translation by Prudence Jones. In word, war was declared on Cleopatra, but in fact the declaration was aimed at Antony. Although Antony held a numerical advantage on land, the war was decided on the sea and ultimately by an engagement fought near Actium in 31 B. What happened during the battle is a mystery. Whether this is true or not is unknown.
With Octavian in control of the sea, he landed troops in Egypt and marched on Alexandria, the capital of Egypt. Although Antony managed to win a minor battle on land, he and Cleopatra were essentially trapped. Antony, hearing falsely that Cleopatra had killed herself, decided to kill himself.
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Instead, he was found wounded and taken to Cleopatra, where he would die with her. When Octavian entered the city, Cleopatra tried to reason with him; however, it became apparent that she would be taken to Rome and paraded as a sort of war trophy, a fate she found intolerable. The tomb and bodies of Cleopatra and Antony have never been found.
Even if Antony and Cleopatra were allowed a proper burial it was common for tombs to be plundered in antiquity. Octavian had Caesarion killed but spared the lives of the three children Cleopatra had with Antony. They were sent to live with Octavia, the sister of Octavian, who at one point was married to Antony.
She brought Egyptian art as well as Greek language and culture to that kingdom.
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Although Cleopatra is often considered to be the last of the Egyptian pharaohs, we know from ancient inscriptions and art that the priests of Egypt did not believe this. In , researchers reported that a stele erected at the Temple of Isis at Philae in 29 B. Future Roman emperors such as Claudius would also be depicted as pharaohs in Egypt. Within that same evening, Cleopatra seduced Caesar, who was married, and became his lover, but more importantly linked herself with the Roman Empire. Caesar returned Cleopatra to her throne, and she then married her youngest brother Ptolemy XIV who was only eleven years of age.
In 44 B.
In 42 B. Once again Cleopatra would use her charm and cunning to integrate herself with a powerful man who was part of a powerful empire. Antony would commit suicide by stabbing himself and soon after Cleopatra committed suicide by being bitten by an asp, an Egyptian cobra. She was thirty nine years old at the time of her death and was buried beside Antony.
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Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt and there have been some controversies in regards to her life. Although most evidence points to her ethnicity as being Greek, there are those who believe she was from black African descent, even though there is little proof of that. Questions have also risen about her beauty, which has been possibly exaggerated by Hollywood motion pictures. Historically, Cleopatra will be remembered as a woman who seized any opportunity that was placed in front of her.
Cleopatra used any means necessary to accomplish her goals and to protect her beloved state of Egypt.
Cleopatra - Life, Rule & Death - HISTORY
Although her use of seduction in regards to her relationships with Cesar and Antony have become legendary to mainstream society, one must not forget the social and political limitations she hurdled to maintain her position as Pharaoh of Egypt. This website provides some basic background information on Cleopatra VII.
Although the information is somewhat limited, there is a brief but informative synopsis of her life beginning with her birth, her rule of Egypt, her relationships with Caesar and Antony, and her death. There are portraits of Cleopatra as well as a picture of a statue of Caesar. This site was last updated in June of , and it is a good starting point for a student looking for basic information on Cleopatra.
Bois, Danuta. The site involves women from all countries and eras, and the subjects can be found by profession or alphabetically. This site is one large link page and connects the researcher to other web sites for a listed individual.
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The Cleopatra VII page provides basic biographical information that should be used as a starting point for future research on the Egyptian Queen. Charveau, Michel. Cleopatra: Beyond the Myth.
Translated by David Lorton. This secondary source attempts to eliminate many of the myths surrounding Cleopatra VII. This source provides some solid background information and can help any researcher trying to dissect facts and myths such as her ethnicity, beauty, and political ambitions.
Egypt in the Age of Cleopatr a. Charveau, also the author of Cleopatra: Beyond the Myth written in the same year presents a picture of Egypt during the twenty year reign of Cleopatra VII. This work provides a genealogical table of the Ptolemaic Dynasty and maps of Egypt. Although this source does not provide much biographical information on Cleopatra, it would satisfy a researcher interested in her impact on Egyptian society.
Written by Cinderella, a history lover who will not give her real name, this site provides a very detailed biography of Cleopatra VII as well as numerous links to other sources of information. The author breaks down these links into sections such as; books, plays, movies and documentaries about Cleopatra.
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